|Barcelona Travel Guide|
Barcelona is a city that is inconceivable until you get there, unbelievable while you walk its streets and unforgettable after you've gone - if you ever manage to tear yourself away. His enviable position between the mountains and the sea ensures year-round outdoor fun.
The city has transformed itself from smug backwater into one of the most dynamic and stylish capitals in the world. Summer is serious party time, with week-long fiesta fun. But year-round the city sizzles, it's always on the biting edge of architecture, food, fashion, style, music and good times. The art, with significant collections by Picasso and Miró, will make you clammy all over. The people, with their exuberance, their duende, their persistent egalitarianism, will fascinate you. The buildings, many the work of the eccentric genius Gaudí, will blow you away.
Facts in a glance
12th century: Catalonia grew rich on pickings from the fall of the Muslim caliphate of Córdoba. The Catalans managed to keep their creative beacon alight through to the 14th century, when Barcelona ruled a mini-empire that included Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, Valencia, the Balearics, the French regions of Rousillon and Cerdagne and parts of Greece.
15th century: While the Catalans may have hoped that union with the kingdom of Castile would pump cash back into the coffers and vitality onto the streets, heirs to the crowns of Castile and Aragón were more interested in juicing Catalonia to finance their own imperial ambitions. Devastated by the plague, spectacular bank crashes, and the Genoese squeezing its markets, the empire ran out of steam.
1462: The rebellion against King Joan II ended in a siege in 1473 that devastated the city. Barcelona was more or less annexed into the Castilian state, but was excluded from the plundering of the Americas that brought fantastic riches to 16th-century Castile. The peasants had started to revolt. Disaffected Catalans resorted to arms a number of times, and the last revolt, during the War of the Spanish Succession, saw Catalonia siding with Britain and Austria against Felipe V, the French contender for the Spanish throne. That was their undoing.
1714: Barcelona fell after another shocking siege, and as well as banning the Catalan language, Felipe built a huge fort, the Ciutadella, to watch over his ungrateful subjects.
1778: Spain's first industrial revolution, based on cotton, was launched there, and other industries based on wine, cork and iron also developed. In this year Catalonia was permitted to trade with America, and the region's fortunes gradually turned around.
1830: The European Romantic movement virtually rescued Catalan culture and language just as it was in danger of disappearing. The Catalan Renaissance, or Renaixença, was a crusade led by poets and writers to popularise the people's language. A fervent nationalist movement sprang up around the same time, and was embraced by all parties of the political spectrum.
20th century: The beggining of century was a fast ride, with anarchists, Republicans, bourgeois regionalists, police terrorists, gangsters, political gunmen called pistoleros and centrists in Madrid all clamouring for a slice of the action.
Barcelona's population exploded, from around 115,000 in 1800 to more than half a million by 1900, then over a million by 1930, as workers flocked in for industrial jobs. As many as 80% of the city's workers embraced the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) by the end of WWI, and industrial relations hit an all-time low during a wave of strikes in 1919-20 when employers hired assassins to kill union leaders.
1931: Within days of Spain's Second Republic forming, Catalan nationalists declared a republic within an 'Iberian Federation'.
1936: In February, Catalonia briefly gained genuine autonomy after the leftist Popular Front won the Spanish general election, and for nearly a year revolutionary anarchists and the POUM (the Workers Marxist Unification Party) ran the town.
1937: In May infighting between communists, anarchists and the POUM exploded into a three-day street fight that killed at least 1500 people.
1939: The Republican effort across Spain was troubled by similar infighting, which destroyed any chance they may have had of defeating Franco's fascist militia. Barcelona, the last stronghold of the Republicans, fell to Franco's forces in January, and the war ended a few months later. Thousands of Catalans fled across the border to France, Andorra and further afield.
Franco banned one of the Catalans' joyful expressions of national unity, the sardana, a public circle dance. Franco wasted no time in banning the Catalan language and flooding the region with impoverished immigrants from Andalucía in the vain hope that the pesky Catalans, with their continual movements for independence, would be swamped. But the plan soured somewhat when the migrants' children and grandchildren turned out to be more Catalan than the Catalans.
But they'd barely turned the last sods on El Supremo's grave when Catalonia burst out again in an effort to recreate itself as a nation. Catalan was revived with a vengeance, the Generalitat, or local parliament, was reinstated, and today, people gather all over town several times a week to dance the sardana. While there's still talk of independence, it remains just talk. Meanwhile, Barcelona is the country's most happening town, and seems set to stay that way.
1992: Olympics allowed Barcelona to once again strut its stuff on the
world stage, projecting an image of cultural prosperity. The games may
be receding from the public mind but the impetus created has hardly slowed.
Enormous projects to 'rehabilitate' vast tracts of rundown central Barcelona
continue, the most recent being the huge Forum 2004 development in the
city's northeast. The city's profile continues to rise; these days, Barcelona
needs no introduction. The once-shabby waterfront has been transformed
with promenades, beaches, marinas, restaurants, leisure attractions and